Honoré De Balzac (1799–1850), French novelist. Later appeared as part of Romans et contes philosophiques (1831), and part of the Etudes philosophiques (1831). It then entered the Comédie humaine (1845, trans. by George Saintsbury, 1971). Raphaël, in The Wild Ass's Skin (La Peau de chagrin), which was first published by Gosselin (1831).